Non-lethal systems of vessel protection including automated monitoring, high-pressure water cannons and foam generators to prevent hostile access to the hull structure may act as a deterrent as the first line of defence but are limited in their efficacy against a determined assault by a well-organised force with adequate manpower. They offer little or no protection against long-range weapons such as RPG, larger calibres or even small arms and cannot achieve manpower attrition, the disabling or damaging of attacking vessels or a real and active threat to determined assailants.
Lethal protection by the presence of a team of highly trained, experienced, and former special forces military personnel (PCASC) as recommended, approved and standardised by the IMO and MSC can offer the protection and security as an ultimate line of defence when passive systems fail to deter assailants.
The efficacy of such teams as an immediate and evident deterrent to assailants at sea, the ability to disable or damage small high-speed vessels as well as consequentially to reduce the numbers of active assaulting forces and to operate at medium to short ranges offers a more comprehensive and effective tertiary measure of security protection and defence of the vessel, crew and cargo.
The economic and strategic risks as well as the serious hazard of kidnapping and ransom (K&R) of crew and officers may thereby be avoided.
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